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  1. The power of forgiveness The REACH method teaches how to overcome lingering bad feelings toward someone who did you wrong. Almost everyone has experienced being wronged by someone. It could be a former co-worker, friend, or family member. But hanging on to those negative feelings can do great harm to your health. "Forgiving a person who has wronged you is never easy, but dwelling on those events and reliving them over and over can fill your mind with negative thoughts and suppressed anger," says Dr. Tyler VanderWeele, co-director of the Initiative on Health, Religion, and Spirituality at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. "Yet, when you learn to forgive, you are no longer trapped by the past actions of others and can finally feel free." Learning to let go There are two sides to forgiveness: decisional and emotional. Decisional forgiveness involves a conscious choice to replace ill will with good will. "You no longer wish bad things to happen to that individual," says Dr. VanderWeele. "This is often quicker and easier to accomplish." For emotional forgiveness, you move away from those negative feelings and no longer dwell on the wrongdoing. "Emotional forgiveness is much harder and takes longer, as it's common for those feelings to return on a regular basis," says Dr. VanderWeele. "This often happens when you think about the offender, or something triggers the memory, or you still suffer from the adverse consequences of the action." Practicing forgiveness can have powerful health benefits. Observational studies, and even some randomised trials, suggest that forgiveness is associated with lower levels of depression, anxiety, and hostility; reduced substance abuse; higher self-esteem; and greater life satisfaction. Yet, forgiving people is not always easy. "It's not that men can't forgive, but for some it's more of a struggle," says Dr. VanderWeele. It's not clear why, but perhaps these men have learned to suppress certain emotions. "It also can be difficult for men to admit to themselves that there was this great offense that still bothers them," says Dr. VanderWeele. Practice small acts of forgiveness One way to get more comfortable with forgiveness is to practice small acts in everyday life, says Dr. Tyler VanderWeele, co-director of the Initiative on Health, Religion, and Spirituality at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. For example, if someone is rude or cuts you off in traffic, use that moment to recognise the wrong, realise it wasn't directed at you personally, and forgive him or her on the spot. "This way you also can learn to immediately stop the negative reaction and the feelings that come with it," says Dr. VanderWeele. Reaching for a solution One of the best ways is to practice forgiveness is with the REACH method. REACH stands for Recall, Emphasise, Altruistic gift, Commit, and Hold. Here is a look at each step. Recall. The first step is to recall the wrongdoing in an objective way. The goal is not to think of the person in a negative light nor to wallow in self-pity, but to come to a clear understanding of the wrong that was done. Visualise the person and situation and all the feelings that come with it. Don't push aside anything, especially if it makes you feel angry or upset. Empathise. Next, try to understand the other person's point of view regarding why he or she hurt you, but without minimising or downplaying the wrong that was done. Sometimes the wrongdoing was not personal, but due to something the other person was dealing with. "People who attack others are sometimes themselves in a state of fear, worry, and hurt," says Dr. VanderWeele. "They often don't think when they hurt others, and they just lash out." Altruistic gift. This step is about addressing your own shortcomings. Recall a time when you treated someone harshly and were forgiven. How did it make you feel? Recognising this helps you realise that forgiveness is an altruistic gift that you can give to others. Commit. Commit yourself to forgive. For instance, write about your forgiveness in a journal or a letter that you don't send or tell a friend. " This helps with the decisional side of forgiveness," says Dr. VanderWeele. Hold. Finally, hold on to your forgiveness. This step is tough because memories of the event will often recur. "Forgiveness is not erasure," says Dr. VanderWeele. "Rather, it's about changing your reaction to those memories." When the bad feelings arise, remind yourself that you have forgiven and ultimately you want good for the offender. If needed, revisit your commitment by reading your journal entries or letters, or recalling the shared conversation with a friend. https://www.health.harvard.edu kalip
  2. Heavily processed food like ready meals and ice-cream linked to early death Two major studies add to body of evidence against foods made with industrial ingredients People who eat large amounts of heavily processed foods, from breakfast cereals and ready meals to muffins and ice-cream, have a greater risk of heart attack, stroke and early death, according to two major studies. The findings, from separate teams in France and Spain, add to a growing body of evidence that foods made in factories with industrial ingredients may have a hand in an array of medical disorders such as cancer, obesity and high blood pressure. In the French NutriSanté study, researchers at the University of Paris gathered details on the diets and health of more than 105,000 people. Over five years of follow-up, those who consumed the most “ultra-processed” food were most at risk of stroke, heart attack and other cardiovascular problems. When the amount of ultra-processed food in the diet rose 10 percentage points, for example from 10% to 20%, the risk of the diseases rose 12%. The study, published in the British Medical Journal, does not prove that ultra-processed foods cause disease. Nor does the effect appear particularly large, even in the most enthusiastic junk food consumers. The results suggest that 277 cases of cardiovascular disease would arise each year in 100,000 heavy consumers of ultra-processed foods, versus 242 cases in the same number of low consumers. But Mathilde Touvier, a member of the French team, said there was sufficient evidence for public health authorities to apply the precautionary principle and advise people to cut down. “The public should avoid these foods as much as they can,” she said. “We need to go back to more basic diets.” Classification of processed foods The Nova system for classification of processed foods was created in 2010 and updated in 2016. It divides different foodstuffs into categories based on the level of processing involved. Examples of unprocessed or minimally processed foods: Fruit, vegetables, legumes, milk (whole, semi-skimmed, and non-fat), eggs, meats, poultry, fish and seafood, fermented milk as yogurt, grains (white rice, pasta), natural juice, coffee, and water Processed culinary ingredients Salt, sugar, honey, vegetable oils (olive, sunflower, corn), chilli, butter, and lard Processed foods Condensed milk, cream milk, cheeses, cured traditional ham, bacon, canned and bottled fruit, breads (white and whole), beer, and wine Ultra-processed foods Custard, ice cream, ham, salami, sausage, hamburger, pate, foie grass, meatballs, potato chips, breakfast cereals, pizza,, margarine, biscuits, muffins, doughnuts, croissants and other non-handmade pastries, cakes, chocolate, marzipan, carbonated drinks, artificially sugared beverages, fruit drinks, milkshakes, instant soups, mayonnaise, alcoholic drinks produced by fermentation followed by distillation such as whisky, gin, and rum Ultra-processed foods tend to be formulated from industrial ingredients, blending starches, sugar and saturated fats with additives such as preservatives, binders, bulkers, sweeteners, flavourings and “sensory enhancers”. In the UK, the foods are so popular they make up half of the national diet, more than any other country in Europe. For the second study, also in the BMJ, a team at the University of Navarra in Pamplona monitored the eating habits and health of nearly 20,000 Spanish graduates from 1999 to 2014. Over the course of the study, 335 participants died. Once factors such as age, @@@, body mass index and whether or not people smoked were taken into account, the trend was clear. The top quarter consumers of ultra-processed foods – who had more than four servings a day – were 62% more likely to have died than those in the bottom quarter, who ate less than two portions a day. For each additional serving, the risk of death rose 18%. Maria Bes-Rastrollo, who led the Spanish study, said the fact that the death rate rose with increased consumption strongly suggested that ultra-processed foods were to blame. She said it was important to learn how to recognise the foods, adding: “Ultra-processed foods are made predominantly or entirely from industrial substances and contain little or no whole foods. They are ready to heat, drink, or eat.” Touvier said it was unclear how ultra-processed foods may harm health. Even when its poor nutritional value is taken into account, consumption is still linked to more disease and death, she said. One suspicion is that it displaces healthier, more nutritious foods, but additives and perhaps contaminants from processing and packaging may play a role too. Prof Corinna Hawkes, director of food policy at City University London and one of the lead researchers in the government-funded obesity policy research unit, said: “Governments must do more to comprehensively reduce the availability, affordability, and appeal of processed foods high in fats, sugars and salt.” “It is critical to pursue further research on the connection between food and health,” she added. “There is a lot we do know but also a lot we have yet to learn. We need more and more studies to build up a bigger picture.” In an accompanying editorial, Mark Lawrence and Phillip Baker, who work on food and nutrition policy at Deakin University in Australia, write: “The dietary advice is relatively straightforward: eat less ultra-processed food and more unprocessed or minimally processed food.” https://www.theguardian.com/science kalip
  3. Hair loss pills and steroids can harm men's fertility warn experts- as they say attempts 'to look wonderful and attract women to start a family with' may be counter-productive Men who take steroids for muscle growth are potentially harming their fertility The same for anti-baldness pills which could also cause erectile dysfunction Scientists have said it's 'ironic' and named it the Mossman-Pacey paradox Men are damaging their chances of having children by going to the gym 'to look wonderful and attract women', experts have warned. Scientists have said drugs used for muscle growth and anti-baldness pills can have side effects including erectile dysfunction and infertility. The ironic effect has been labelled the Mossman-Pacey paradox after the scientists who first described it, noticing more buff men needing fertility tests. Professor Allan Pacey, from the University of Sheffield, told the BBC: 'Isn't it ironic that men go to the gym to look wonderful, for the most part t o attract women, and inadvertently decrease their fertility.' Dr James Mossman, at Brown University Rhode Island, said: 'They [some men] are trying to look really big, to look like the pinnacles of evolution. 'But they are making themselves very unfit in an evolutionary sense, because without exception they had no sperm in their ejaculation at all.' Dr Mossman was at Sheffield University studying for his doctorate when he noticed a lot of the men coming in to have their fertility tested were 'huge'. He then made the connection between poor fertility and the use of anabolic steroids, which are used to increase muscle mass and performance in the gym. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), a type of image and performance-enhancing drug (IPEDs), are synthetically produced versions of the naturally occurring male @@@ hormone testosterone. However, they can block the production of testosterone in the testicles themselves, which is crucial for sperm production. The effect can be reversed once the man stops using steroids in three months to a year. But if used for a long time in high doses, it can damage fertility permanently. Professor Pacey, former chairman of the British Fertility Society, estimates that 90 per cent of anabolic steroid uses become sterile. Anti-baldness pills are not as much of a concern, he said, however they are rising starkly in sales. The drug finasteride, which is prescription only in the UK, lists sexual dysfunction as a 'very common' side effect, which includes a lower @@@ drive and the inability to get an erection. It limits hair loss by changing the way testosterone is metabolised in the body, stopping it from being converted into dihydrotestosterone, a male androgen that's been linked to balding. In a study conducted by The George Washington University, published in JAMA Dermatology in 2014, roughly five per cent of men taking the medication experienced a decline in sperm count. Dr Mossman believes humans are the only animals that sacrifice their fertility success in the hopes of attracting the opposite @@@. The two experts warned that men may be unclear on the potentially life-changing side effects of their vanity. Professor Pacey said: 'It keeps cropping up in clinics and the message is not getting out to young men that it's a problem and a bit of info could save them a lot of heartache.' Drug charity FRANK warns users of IPEDS may become hooked on the way the drugs make them look and feel. The NHS warns they are addictive. People of all ages have been known to misuse the class C drug, which are the only drug in the UK to have seen a staggering increasing of use. An extra 19,000 young people had taken the drug in the year 2016-2017, official data showed. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health kalip
  4. How Heart Disease Is Diagnosed The ways doctors diagnose heart disease can vary quite a bit, depending on which kind of heart disease we’re talking about. However, it is possible to outline the general method which most doctors use to make a diagnosis when they suspect you may have heart disease. It looks like this: First, take a careful medical history. Second, perform a focused physical examination. Finally, decide which medical tests are likely to help complete the diagnosis. Medical History “Taking a medical history” simply means that your doctor will interview you to learn what kinds of symptoms or medical complaints you may have (if any) and tease out any features associated with those symptoms that might point toward their causes. Depending on the symptoms you describe, your doctor may ask you a lot of questions detailing those symptoms—what seems to bring them on, what makes them stop, how long they last, when they have occurred, and any other associated circumstances. For certain potentially important cardiac symptoms—chest pain and syncope being two good examples—taking a careful medical history is often the most important step in making the diagnosis. Physical Examination The cardiac examination may also give some important clues as to the presence, absence, or type of cardiovascular problem a person may have. Cardiac arrhythmias, heart valve disease, congestive heart failure, aortic aneurysm, and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), are only a few of the kinds of cardiovascular problems for which the physical examination often gives very important clues, or indeed, actually confirms the diagnosis. Specialised Testing A wide variety of sophisticated tests have been developed for diagnosing heart problems. While specialised cardiovascular tests are often the “gold standard” for making or confirming a cardiac diagnosis, in general they are the most useful when your doctor already has a very good idea— from performing a history and physical exam—of what the correct diagnosis is. Cardiovascular tests can be expensive, difficult to perform, time-consuming, and in some cases invasive. So, diagnostic tests should be used, whenever possible, in a targeted fashion to confirm the suspected diagnosis rather than just doing several tests, in shotgun fashion, to see what turns up. In other words, doctors should rely on the information they obtain during their initial clinical evaluation to decide what in particular to look for, which test or tests are best suited to look for it, and if more than one test is needed, which order they ought to be performed in. This way, if you have a heart problem your doctor can get to the right answer as expeditiously as possible, without exposing you to unnecessary expense or risk. The Electrocardiogram (ECG) The ECG records the electrical activity of the heart and can reveal information about the heart rhythm and important clues about structural heart disease that may be present (such as a prior heart attack, or ventricular hypertrophy. The ECG is performed so commonly that many doctors consider it to be a routine part of an annual wellness examination. Ambulatory Monitoring Several systems are available that allow the recording of an electrocardiogram for days or weeks at a time, in order to record the heart rhythm over a prolonged period. These systems allow doctors to diagnose cardiac arrhythmias that occur only infrequently and sporadically. Echocardiogram or Cardiac Ultrasound The echocardiogram study is a non-invasive test that uses sound waves to construct an image of the beating heart. The echo study is very useful for detecting the enlargement of cardiac chambers, heart valve disease, and heart muscle problems such as dilated cardiomyopathy or restrictive cardiomyopathy. It is a relatively quick study to perform, is non-invasive, and does not require radiation. This makes the echocardiogram a nearly ideal screening tool if structural abnormalities of the heart are suspected or if you're at high risk for heart disease but don't have any symptoms. It is also a test that can be performed repeatedly, over time, to monitor the status of a cardiac problem. Cardiac CT Scan A cardiac CT scan, like any CT scan, uses computerised x-ray equipment to make an image of the heart. This technique can also be used to look for calcium deposits in the coronary arteries, which is an indication that atherosclerosis is present. The CT scan uses a substantial amount of radiation, so it should only be performed if the information it gives is very likely to be clinically useful. Cardiac MRI Study The cardiac MRI study uses magnetic fields to construct an image of the heart and surrounding structures. This test can show impressive anatomic details, and in certain circumstances can be very useful in diagnosing and characterising structural heart disease. Stress Testing Cardiac stress testing has several potential uses, but it is used chiefly to help assess whether coronary artery disease is producing cardiac ischaemia that may be responsible for angina, and if so, to help assess the severity of the problem. A stress test is often combined with a thallium scan, which uses a small dose of a radioactive material to produce an image of the heart that reflects whether the heart muscle is getting the blood flow it needs. Stress testing can also be very useful in monitoring the effectiveness of anti-anginal therapy. Cardiac Catheterisation With this invasive test, small catheters are inserted into the blood vessels and passed into the heart and/or coronary arteries. Pressures can be measured inside the heart, and dye can be injected into blood vessels and cardiac chambers to make a moving x-ray image of blood flow. The catheterisation study has many potential applications but is used most commonly to visualise the coronary arteries in people with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Cardiac catheterisation is also used to deliver therapy, most commonly, by performing angioplasty and placing stents in people with arterial blockages. Electrophysiology Study This is another form of cardiac catheterisation, but in this case the catheters are insulated wires instead of hollow tubes. This test is used to study the cardiac electrical system to determine the presence or absence, and the mechanism, of various kinds of cardiac arrhythmias. This technique is also used to deliver ablation therapy in order to treat several kinds of arrhythmias. Tilt Table Study A tilt table study is performed by strapping a person to a table that has a footboard on it, then raising the table to an upright position. With certain cardiovascular conditions an upright tilt for 20 minutes or more can reproduce certain kinds of cardiovascular instability, particularly in people who are suspected of having vasovagal syncope. The tilt study can help to confirm the diagnosis. https://www.verywellhealth.com kalip
  5. Heart scan 'could pick up signs of sudden death risk' Scientists say a new scan technique could identify people at risk of collapsing and dying suddenly from a hidden heart condition. Normally, in people with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, signs of structural changes in the heart can only be picked up after death. But University of Oxford researchers used microscopic imaging to spot the same patterns in living patients. The condition is the top cause of sudden cardiac death in young people. It is a common, inherited condition, affecting one in 500 people in the UK, which can be fatal in small numbers of people. Footballer Fabrice Muamba had a near-fatal cardiac arrest during a match while David Frost's son Miles died suddenly while jogging aged 31, for example. Yet many of those with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or HCM, have few or no warning symptoms - and some are able to lead perfectly normal lives. Kick-start required The research team focused on detecting those at risk of sudden death, by looking for abnormal fibre patterns in the heart which could lead to potentially deadly heart rhythms. This is thought to affect around 1% of people with the condition. They can then have a small device implanted in their heart to kick-start it into beating again when an abnormal heart rhythm is detected. Dr Rina Ariga, study author and cardiologist at University of Oxford, said: "We're hopeful that this new scan will improve the way we identify high-risk patients, so that they can receive an implantable cardioverter defibrillator early to prevent sudden death." She added: "We now need to work on making this scan shorter and faster for patients so that we can test its utility in a large multi-centre study." Currently, calculating a patient's risk is based on the thickness of their heart wall, their family history, plus any unexplained collapses and abnormal heart rhythms. The difference with the Oxford researchers' approach is that they used MRI scans to look at detailed images of the structure of the heart muscle to check for "muscle fibre disarray". This suggests that heartbeats are not allowed to spread evenly across the heart's muscle fibres. The study, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, scanned 50 patients with HCM and 30 healthy volunteers and were able to see "disarray" in living patients with the heart condition that had previously only been found in patients after sudden cardiac death. These patients were also more likely to have abnormal heart rhythms. The technique, called diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, is normally used on the brain - but advances mean it can now be used on the heart. 'Fantastic' Dr Steven Cox, chief executive of charity Cardiac Risk in the Young, said: "It is fantastic to think in the future these clinical findings could be identified in patients living with HCM and used to help in their routine diagnostic and treatments pathways." Dr Cox said the key to identifying those at risk in the general population was through cardiac screening "using the cost effective and non-invasive ECG [electrocardiogram] test". This is available to book for under 35s via the charity's Test My Heart website. Prof Metin Avkiran, associate medical director at the British Heart Foundation, which helped to fund the research, said: "Although further work is needed to refine and test this scan, its potential benefit to patients with HCM is huge. "This work is an excellent example of cutting-edge, research-led technology that could change the way we diagnose and treat heart and circulatory diseases." https://www.bbc.com/news/health kalip
  6. How Often Should You Eat What to Do If You're Eating Less but Gaining Weight If you read headlines about healthy eating or weight loss, you've probably noticed that many popular diet plans include periods of fasting. But others encourage you to eat every few hours to avoid starvation mode. Does not eating make you fat? And if so, how often should you eat? And if weight loss is your goal, what happens if you are eating less but gaining weight? To sort through the headlines, it's smart to turn to health and medical experts. Dr. Joel Fuhrman is a six-time New York Times best-selling author and President of the Nutritional Research Foundation. His beliefs about how often you should eat to lose weight are consistent with what researchers and scientists have known about metabolism for years. And what some dieters get wrong. Does Not Eating Make You Fat? Many dieters are "grazers." That means that they eat every few two to three hours. There are several theories about why grazing might work for weight loss. Some dieters believe that eating often helps them to avoid severe hunger and binge eating that may result if they get too hungry. Others believe that eating often helps to keep their metabolism from dropping—which can happen if hunger causes them to move less. And other believe that if they don't eat frequently, their body goes into starvation mode. When dieters talk about starvation mode, they are usually referring to the effect that infrequent eating can have on your metabolism. The commonly held belief is that if you don't eat every three hours or if you skip a meal—like breakfast—your metabolism immediately slows to preserve energy and prepare for starvation. As a result, weight loss grinds to a halt and weight gain can occur. Some science-savvy dieters might also confuse starvation mode with what researchers call "adaptive thermogenesis." Scientific studies have confirmed that people who have successfully lost weight have a slower metabolism than their same-weight counterparts who have never dieted. These people often (reasonably) complain that they are eating less but gaining weight. Researchers believe that the slower metabolism is an adaptation to eating fewer calories over an extended period of time. Adaptive thermogenesis makes it harder for people who have lost weight to maintain a healthy weight. So why is the distinction between starvation mode and adaptive thermogenesis so important? Because even though the concept of adaptive thermogenesis has been validated in clinical studies, researchers don't necessarily blame infrequent eating or skipped meals (starvation mode) for the slower metabolism. So dieters shouldn't necessarily use the evidence-based concept of adaptive thermogenesis to justify eating more often. The Starvation Mode Myth So should you eat often or scale back and eat less frequently? The answer can be a little bit tricky and much of it depends on your personal lifestyle. However, starvation mode should not be a concern. Dr. Fuhrman explains that eating less can have an effect on your metabolism, but not in the way that we think. In fact, he thinks that the idea of starvation mode is "ridiculous." "Caloric restriction can have an effect on metabolic rate but on the rate at which you lose weight, not on whether or not you lose weight," he says. Fuhrman says emphatically that dieters will not gain weight by restricting calories. "If starvation mode was a real thing," he says, "then anorexics would be fat." In short, Fuhrman says that dieters should never try to eat more to avoid starvation mode. Snacking frequently or increasing the number of meals you eat during the day doesn't work if you want to lose weight. "When people increase the number of eating occasions during the day, they increase body weight," says Fuhrman How Often Should You Eat? New studies are finding that a shorter "eating window" may boost weight loss. A study published in a 2015 issue of Cell Metabolism concluded that among study participants more than a half of adults eat for 15 hours or longer every day. They suggest that reducing your daily eating duration can aid weight loss. Adding to that, Fuhrman believes that the quality of your diet—not eating frequency—makes the difference. In his book, The End of Dieting, he offers a scientific explanation for why we want to eat all the time. He explains that what feels like hunger is often just our body's natural response to withdrawal from junk food. "People get uncomfortable, that's all it is." He says that weight loss happens when we increase the amount of healthy food we consume, not the frequency of eating episodes. Eating higher quality foods helps us to find an eating schedule that allows you to reach and maintain a healthy weight. The best way to determine how often you should eat is to evaluate your schedule and keep a food journal. Jot down notes about when you are most likely to have food cravings and when you are most likely to feel real hunger. Those are times to schedule meals and snacks. You might also want to make note of times during the day when you experience energy dips. It is very likely that you are either dehydrated, hungry, or simply tired during those occasions. Examine your sleep schedule to make sure you are well rested, drink plenty of water to stay hydrated, then finally plan your meals so that those energy dips are less likely to occur as a result of hunger. Everyone's schedule is different. Don't worry if your eating schedule is different than what you see in magazines or on websites. What matters most is diet quality and overall health. Eat as often as you need to stay active and healthy. But choose nutritious foods that are naturally low in calories to keep your overall calorie intake in line. A Word From Verywell If you're eating less but still gaining weight, examine the quality of your diet. Choosing nutritious, high-fibre, high-protein foods will help you to feel full longer so you don't want eat as often. But calorie count matters, as well. If you're eating less, but eating foods that are high in calories (even if those foods are healthy) you'll have a hard time reaching your goal. Check your total daily calorie needs and try to stay within a hundred calories of that target. If weight gain continues, check in with your health care provider to make sure that a medical condition or medication isn't causing you to gain weight. https://www.verywellfit.com kalip
  7. Cancer: Breakthrough treatments to target drug resistance The world's first drugs designed to stop cancer cells becoming resistant to treatment could be available within the next decade, scientists have said. A £75m investment to develop the drugs has been announced by the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR). Chief executive Prof Paul Workman said cancer's ability to adapt to drugs is the biggest challenge in treatment. The new drugs could make cancer a "manageable" disease in the long term and "more often curable", he said. Researchers say existing treatments such as chemotherapy sometimes fail because the deadliest cancer cells adapt and survive, causing the patient to relapse. Prof Workman said: "Cancer's ability to adapt, evolve and become drug resistant was the cause of the vast majority of deaths from the disease and the biggest challenge we face in overcoming it." He said the institute was "changing the entire way we think about cancer" to focus on anticipating the way cancer cells will evolve to prevent them from becoming resistant to drugs. The ICR aims to attract a further £15m of funding for its new Centre for Drug Discovery at its campus in Sutton, south London, which is intended to bring together almost 300 scientists from different fields. Analysis By James Gallagher, health and science correspondent, BBC News All cancers are constantly evolving and that is a major problem because patients relapse if their cancer develops resistance to therapy. The approach by the Institute of Cancer Research is to harness the process of evolution, to turn to the theories of Charles Darwin in the hunt for new therapies. One idea is to develop drugs that limit a cancer's ability to evolve. Another is "evolutionary herding" that guides a cancer's development into a state that makes it more vulnerable to drugs. Or combinations of therapies could present an impossible hurdle for cancer to overcome. Early-stage experiments using these ideas have had promising results, but any changes to the way patients are treated are at least a decade away. Scientists aim to use new approaches including multidrug combination treatments and artificial intelligence to predict and influence the evolution of cancer cells, creating weaknesses that treatments can exploit. 'Patients can live longer' Dr Andrea Sottoriva, deputy director of cancer evolution in the new centre, said: "Artificial intelligence and mathematical predictive methods have huge potential to get inside cancer's head and predict what it is going to do next and how it will respond to new treatments." Researchers are already working on new drugs designed to stop a type of protein molecule called Apobec, which is part of the immune system hijacked by more than half of cancer types to speed up the evolution of drug resistance. Prof Workman said laboratory testing and clinical trials for the new drugs would take around 10 years before they could potentially become available for patients. He added: "We firmly believe that, with further research, we can find ways to make cancer a manageable disease in the long term and one that is more often curable, so patients can live longer and with a better quality of life." https://www.bbc.com/news/health kalip
  8. Joint supplements could reduce the chance of early heart death by a fifth A cheap dietary pill used to soothe the agony of arthritis can slash the risk of a heart attack or stroke by more than a fifth, according to research. A study of almost half a million people found those who used glucosamine regularly were up to 22 per cent less likely to die from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Researchers believe the supplement slashes levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) - a chemical associated with inflammation and heart attacks. But critics doubt the findings, saying the dose of glucosamine consumed was not specified and it wasn't clear if participants were taking other supplements. Glucosamine is a supplement consumed by millions of people around the world to ease the misery of joint pain. A cheap dietary pill used to soothe the agony of arthritis can slash the risk of a heart attack or stroke by more than a fifth, according to research. A study of almost half a million people found those who used glucosamine regularly were up to 22 per cent less likely to die from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Researchers believe the supplement slashes levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) - a chemical associated with inflammation and heart attacks. But critics doubt the findings, saying the dose of glucosamine consumed was not specified and it wasn't clear if participants were taking other supplements. Glucosamine is a supplement consumed by millions of people around the world to ease the misery of joint pain. Animal studies have found that it can both delay the breakdown of and repair damaged cartilage. The compound is produced naturally by the body in cartilage between the joints. But evidence on whether it works in humans is mixed, with many studies showing little or no effect on pain relief or joint function. Researchers from Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana, followed 466,039 male and female Britons without CVD for an average of seven years. Using death certificates and hospital records they found glucosamine was associated with a 15 per cent lower risk of CVD events. The findings also showed that coronary heart disease (CHD), strokes and deaths from CVD were reduced by between nine and 22 per cent. These associations remained after taking account of traditional risk factors, including age, @@@, weight (BMI), ethnicity, lifestyle, diet, medication and other supplement use. Overall, almost one in five participants - 19.3 per cent - reported glucosamine use at the start of the study. Lead researcher Professor Lu Qi said: 'Several potential mechanisms could explain the observed protective relation between glucosamine use and CVD diseases. Regular use of glucosamine was associated with a statistically significant reduction in CRP concentrations, which is a marker for systemic inflammation. 'Animal studies also reported that the anti-inflammatory properties of glucosamine might have a preventive role in the pathophysiology of CVD. 'In addition, a previous study found that glucosamine could mimic a low carbohydrate diet by decreasing glycolysis and increasing amino acid catabolism in mice; therefore, glucosamine has been treated as an energy restriction mimetic agent. 'Other mechanisms might also be involved, and future investigations are needed to explore the functional roles of glucosamine in cardiovascular health.' The new findings, published in The British Medical Journal, are based on an analysis of data from the UK Biobank study that contain the health records of hundreds of thousands of people. During the course of the follow-up period there were 10,204 CVD incidents, 3,060 CVD deaths, 5,745 coronary heart disease events, and 3,263 strokes. Participants were enrolled from 2006 to 2010 and were followed up to 2016. Dr Louisa Lam, deputy dean of the school of nursing and healthcare professions at Federation University in Australia, said: 'There is so much controversy around the effects of glucosamine and vitamin supplements in general, and I do have my doubts about this analysis. 'There is lots of research evidence that supports my doubt. My view is that the study has a very large sample, and with large samples like that, it is easy to find some statistical significance in 'things' the researchers want. 'I would really like to see if there is an association with other supplements and CVD events or death. 'The authors should provide information on other supplements as comparisons. Also, a Yes and No answer on the use of Glucosamine is insufficient. 'We need dose and length information. I have my doubts about the reported result in relation to the link between glucosamine supplements and lower risks of CVD events.' Professor Naveed Sattar at the University of Glasgow, said only a clinical trial could determine whether the supplement lowers the risk of heart disease. He added: 'Whilst the authors have done a careful job of analysing the link between glucosamine intake and cardiovascular outcomes in a big dataset, only a trial can determine whether there is any truth to the lower observed risk. 'Observational studies can only ever generate new ideas to test. They cannot prove a causal link since some biases are impossible to overcome and it may well be those who take glucosamine regularly have healthy lifestyles in ways that are not fully captured by measured data. 'Many other supplements have not proven benefits in trials even when observational data suggested there may be health benefits. 'Some supplements have even been shown to cause harm in trials. So, for now, I would not rush to buy glucosamine to lessen my heart risks when there are many other cost-effective proven ways to do so.' The findings come after the British Heart Foundation (BHF) announced that heart disease-related deaths had gone up for the first time in 50 years. Although the overall death rate is still improving, fatalities in the under-75 age group have been climbing since 2015. The worrying trend follows decades of progress which has seen premature death rates plummet since the 1960s. Figures show 42,384 people in the UK died from conditions including heart attack and stroke before their 75th birthday in 2017, compared with just over 41,000 three years earlier. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/index.html kalip
  9. Vegan Blueberry Cake with a Tart Lemon Glaze Ingredients 1½ cups all-purpose flour 2 teaspoons baking powder ½ teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon ground flax 1 tablespoon corn-starch ¾ cup sugar 2 – 3 teaspoons lemon zest** 1/3 cup vegetable oil 150 grams package of Silk Vanilla Dairy-free Yoghurt Alternative 1 teaspoon apple cider vinegar 1 cup blueberries* fresh or frozen 5 – 6 tablespoons lemon juice 1 – 2 cups powdered sugar Instructions Heat your oven to 175 °C. Line a loaf pan with parchment paper on the bottom and spray over paper and sides of pan with vegetable spray. In a bowl whisk together the flour, baking powder, salt, ground flax, and corn-starch. Set aside. In a separate bowl combine the sugar and lemon zest. Stir to combine, so that the sugar is coated with the lemon zest. Add the vegetable oil, yoghurt alternative, and apple cider vinegar to the sugar mixture. Stir to combine. Sprinkle 1 tablespoon of flour mixture over blueberries (if using frozen berries. If using fresh, skip this step). Add sugar mixture to dry mixture. Stir until combined. Very gently fold in blueberries to spread them around the batter. Pour into your prepared pan. Place in the oven on the middle rack and bake for 50 minutes. While the cake is baking prepare the Lemon Sauce by combining 1/2 cup powdered sugar with the lemon juice. Stir to combine. When the cake is done, remove from the oven and allow to cool for 10 minutes or so. Then pour all but 2 tablespoons of the Lemon Sauce over the hot cake. Set aside. Create the Glaze by adding remaining powdered sugar to the 2 tablespoons of Lemon Sauce. Stir until you achieve a nice consistency. When you’re ready to serve the cake, pour the glaze over the cake and serve. https://www.livekindly.co/vegan-food/?utm_source=LIVEKINDLY+Mailing+List&utm_campaign=5e99983b31-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2019_03_28_01_54_COPY_16&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_8051ea5750-5e99983b31-135803447 kalip
  10. Do I Need an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test? Your blood sugar level can give your doctor important clues about your health, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) shows how well your body handles sugar from foods. It can tell whether you are at risk for diabetes or if you already have it. A shorter version of an OGTT checks for diabetes during pregnancy. Normally when you eat, your blood sugar rises. Your pancreas, a long gland deep in the belly, releases a hormone called insulin. It helps move sugar from your blood into your cells for energy and storage. Then your blood sugar goes back down to normal. If you have type 2 diabetes, your body uses insulin poorly. Glucose builds up in your blood. This excess sugar can damage blood vessels around your body. Diabetes can lead to heart disease, nerve damage, eye disease, and kidney damage. When Do I Need the Test? You might need an oral glucose tolerance test if you: Are overweight or obese Have a close family member with diabetes Have high blood pressure Have high triglycerides (a type of fat in your blood) Have polycystic ovarian syndrome (which causes menstrual problems) Delivered a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds Had gestational diabetes during a past pregnancy A shorter version of this test is done between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy to see whether you have gestational diabetes. It's called the oral glucose challenge test. How Do I Get Ready? To get an accurate result on the OGTT, eat about 150 grams of carbohydrates each day for 3 days before the test. Don't eat or drink anything except water after about 10 o’clock the night before. You don't need to do any special prep before the pregnancy glucose challenge test. You can eat in the morning. Just avoid foods with a lot of sugar, such as doughnuts or orange juice. How Is It Done? You'll get the OGTT at your doctor's office, a clinic, hospital, or lab. Here’s what happens: A nurse or doctor will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm to test your starting blood sugar level. You'll then drink a mixture of glucose dissolved in water. You'll get another blood glucose test 2 hours later. During pregnancy, the test is shorter. You'll drink a sweet liquid. Then you'll have a blood test about 60 minutes later. Any Problems from Taking It? The OGTT has very few issues. Some people have minor side effects from the sugary drink or from the needle stick. Side effects from the drink include: Nausea Vomiting Bloating Headache Low blood sugar (rarely) Possible problems from the blood test include: Excess bleeding Fainting Infection More than one attempt to find a vein, which can hurt a little What Do the Results Mean? Your blood glucose level should rise after you finish the sugary drink. Then it should go back to normal, as insulin moves glucose into your cells. If your blood sugar takes a long time to go back to normal, you could have diabetes. You might see a measurement from the test written out as “mg/dL.” It stands for milligrams per decilitre. Two hours after you finish the glucose drink, this is what your results mean: Below 140 mg/dL: normal blood sugar Between 140 and 199: impaired glucose tolerance, or prediabetes 200 or higher: diabetes When you're pregnant, a blood glucose level of 140 mg/dL or higher is abnormal. Your doctor will recommend that you take a 3-hour OGTT. During this longer test, you'll have blood drawn before you drink a sugary solution. Then you'll have your blood tested every hour for three hours. What Happens Next? If you have prediabetes, your doctor will talk to you about ways to stop it from turning into a full-blown case. Exercise and weight loss are two ways to lower your risk for type 2 diabetes. If the test shows you have diabetes, you might get what’s called an “A1C” or other tests to confirm the diagnosis. Diet, exercise, and medicine can help control your blood sugar. Good foods and physical activity can also help control diabetes during pregnancy. Your blood sugar should go back to normal after your baby is born. But gestational diabetes increases your risk of getting type 2 diabetes after your pregnancy. You'll need to stay on a healthy diet and exercise plan to avoid a future diabetes diagnosis. https://www.webmd.com/diabetes kalip
  11. Low-dose aspirin linked to bleeding in the skull, new report says Taking low-dose aspirin to prevent heart disease and stroke is associated with an increased risk of bleeding in the skull in people without a history of those conditions, according to a new report. Researchers analysed data from 13 previous studies in which over 130,000 people ages 42 to 74, who didn't have a history of heart disease or stroke, were given either low-dose aspirin or a placebo for the prevention of these conditions. An aspirin is typically defined as low-dose if it is between 75 and 100 milligrams, but most over-the-counter pills are around 81 milligrams. People who took the placebo had a 0.46% risk of having a head bleed during the combined trial periods. For those who took low-dose aspirin, the risk was 0.63%, the equivalent of an additional 2 out of every 1,000 people developing a bleed, according to the study, published Monday in the journal JAMA Neurology. People from Asian backgrounds and those with a body mass index under 25 had the highest risk. Taking a low-dose aspirin every day had formerly been recommended for older adults because of aspirin's known ability to prevent platelets from forming a clot. In people who have fatty deposits in their arteries, known as atherosclerotic plaques, the plaques can break off and trigger clotting, obstructing blood flow to the heart or brain. Although aspirin would in theory stop this process, previous studies had offered conflicting evidence on whether prescribing it increases the risk of bleeding in the skull, the authors of the new research explained. Three recent large studies concluded that taking a daily low-dose aspirin is, at best, a waste of money for healthy older adults. At worst, it may raise their risk of internal bleeding and early death. In light of this evidence, aspirin is no longer recommended as a preventive measure for older adults who don't have a high risk of or existing heart disease, according to guidelines announced in March by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. "Clinicians should be very selective in prescribing aspirin for people without known cardiovascular disease," Johns Hopkins cardiologist Dr. Roger Blumenthal, who co-chaired the March guidelines, said in a statement. "It's much more important to optimise lifestyle habits and control blood pressure and cholesterol as opposed to recommending aspirin. "Aspirin should be limited to people at the highest risk of cardiovascular disease and a very low risk of bleeding," he said. Patients should work closely with their doctors to establish their risk for bleeding, Blumenthal said. That risk rises as one ages or develops kidney disease, heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure. A history of ulcers or bleeding, especially in the gastrointestinal tract, or anaemia are also risk factors. Certain medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, direct oral anticoagulants and the blood thinner warfarin, can also increase the chance of bleeding. Low-dose aspirin is still recommended for and may be lifesaving for people who have had a stroke or heart attack, according to the American Heart Association. Because head bleeds are often catastrophic and the benefits of low-dose aspirin are not well-established, doctors should use caution when prescribing this medication to people without symptomatic cardiovascular disease, the study's authors said. https://edition.cnn.com/health kalip
  12. Update: More Blood Pressure Meds Recalled Note: This story was updated on May 6, 2019 with a new losartan recall from Vivimed Life Sciences and on April 29, 2019 with a losartan recall from Teva Pharmaceuticals USA. Dozens of medications used to treat high blood pressure have been recalled over the past several months as federal investigators discover potentially cancer-causing impurities in them. When American Health Packaging recalled one lot of valsartan pills on March 7, the Public Interest Research Group said it was the 75th recall of blood pressure medications since the problem first appeared. These common prescription drugs include valsartan, losartan, and irbesartan in different combinations and from different manufacturers. The problems have become so widespread that on March 12 the FDA prioritized approval of a new generic of valsartan to help relieve shortages of the drug. In April, the agency released a list of 40 blood pressure medications it says are free from contamination. You can find the list here. "Our goal is for this information to help health care providers as they consider acceptable treatment options for their patients," the agency said in a statement. The FDA is also working to determine what exactly has caused the impurities and what changes need to be made in the manufacturing process to prevent it. The Public Interest Research Group said in March that the FDA needs to step up the pace. "After 75 recalls it is clear more aggressive action is needed," PIRG consumer watchdog Adam Garber said in a release. "Americans expect their blood pressure medication to treat their conditions, not cause cancer. The FDA needs to finish its investigation and develop a plan to prevent further contamination." Almost 60 million prescriptions were written for losartan drugs in 2016 and 14 million for valsartan or a drug that includes it. An additional 3.6 million prescriptions were written for irbesartan that year. Here’s what you need to know. What blood pressure drugs have been recalled? Valsartan. There have been so many types of valsartan recalled this year that the FDA has created a website listing just for them. The latest is American Health Packaging's 160 mg valsartan tablets, lot number 179791 that expire on March 31, 2020. The pills come in 100-count blister packs with NDC number 60687-139-01. The agency has also created a page that lists drugs that have not been recalled. Losartan. In December, the FDA announced a voluntary recall of losartan potassium tablets USP. An addition eight lots of Torrent Pharmaceuticals' losartan tablets were added to a previous recall in January. In November, the FDA announced a voluntary recall of losartan potassium/hydrochlorothiazide, 100 mg/25 mg tablets in 1,000-count plastic bottles, NDC 0781-5207-10, Lot number JB8912, Exp. Date 06/2020. Torrent's recall was expanded on Jan. 22 to include 10 additional lots of losartan potassium tablets, and six lots of losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Torrent further expanded the recall in April for 36 more lots of losartan potassium tablets and 68 lots of losartan potassium/hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Macleods Pharmaceuticals Limited on Feb. 25 recalled one lot of losartan potassium/hydrochlorothiazide combination tablets 100mg/25mg, with a July 2019 expiration date. Camber Pharmaceuticals on Feb. 28 recalled 87 lots of losartan tablets USP 25mg, 50 mg and 100 mg. Legacy Pharmaceutical Packaging, LLC on March 15 recalled 43 lots of losartan tablets. On April 24, the company recalled an additional lot of 50mg losartan tablets. Teva Pharmaceuticals USA on April 26 recalled 35 lots of losartan potassium tablets (6 lots of 25 mg pills and 29 lots of 100 mg) that were sold exclusively to the Golden State Medical Supply of Camarillo, CA. Golden State re-packages the tablets under its own label for retail sale. On May 4, Vivimed Life Sciences Pvt Ltd recalled 19 lots of losartan potassium tablets in 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg doses. The drugs were made in India and distributed by Heritage Pharmaceuticals of East Brunswick, NJ. For details on the recalled drugs, visit the FDA's website. Irbesartan. In July, the FDA announced a voluntary recall of irbesartan tablets. In January 2019, Prinston Pharmaceutical Inc., doing business as Solco Healthcare LLC, voluntarily recalled eight llots of irbesartan-based drugs. These are not yet listed on the FDA's website of all recalled irbesartan products. T he recall involves irbesartan and irbesartan HCTZ tablets manufactured in China. Why are the drugs being recalled? In each case, a recalled drug was contaminated with N-nitroso dimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitroso dimethylamine (NDEA) or N-Nitroso N-Methyl 4-amino butyric acid (NMBA). Those chemicals are believed to cause cancer in humans. Research also suggests NDEA can cause liver and blood cell damage. NDEA is used to make rocket fuel and can also be found in some food and drinking water, but at low levels. It can also be a created through certain chemical reactions and as a by-product of industrial processes. What is the risk of getting cancer from one of these drugs? The FDA says it is very small. The amount of NDMA found in the recalled valsartan drugs exceeds acceptable levels. Records from drug manufacturers show the impurity may have been in the valsartan products for up to 4 years. The FDA estimates that if 8,000 people took the highest valsartan dose, which is 320 milligrams, from recalled batches every day for 4 years, there would likely only be one additional case of cancer over the life of those 8,000 people. For context, 1 in 3 people in the United States will be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime. What’s driving the spike in recalls? A common thread among all of these recalls is that the drugs, or ingredients in the drugs, were all made in China or India. American drug companies since the 1990s have increasingly used factories in other countries to manufacture their products. About 40% of finished medications are made overseas, the Government Accountability Office says. Nearly 8 out of 10 active pharmaceutical ingredients, which are made into pills at other plants, are, too. This globalisation of the nation’s drug supply helps keep prices down, as it is cheaper to have them made in other countries. But with lower costs sometimes comes lower quality control. What’s being done about products made in other countries? An FDA spokesman says the agency is still investigating how these drugs became contaminated. Inspectors believe contaminated compounds were unintentionally created through a chemical reaction. What should people who rely on these medicines do? Experts say anyone taking a recalled drug should continue to do so, but contact your doctor or pharmacist immediately. The threat from the contamination may be less than the threat of not taking the drug. Your doctor or pharmacist can help you find an alternative. But at least one expert says the recalls are making it more difficult to find valsartan drugs that have not been recalled. And, he says, some blood pressure drugs not on the recall list have seen price increases as demand spikes. https://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure kalip
  13. Vegan Rice Bowl with Harissa Tahini Sauce Recipe Ingredients 1 cup of brown rice, dry 1½ cups edamame, shelled 1 white onion 1 cup red cabbage, shredded 2 cups riced cauliflower 1 cup carrots, shredded 1 avocado 1 tablespoon olive oil​ 4 tablespoons tahini 1 tablespoon sesame oil 1 tablespoon harissa 4 tablespoons rice vinegar 4 tablespoons low sodium soy sauce 2 cloves garlic Preparation 1. Cook rice according to package directions, omitting any additional butter and salt. 2. Blend sauce ingredients in a small blender. Set aside. 3. While the rice cooks, chop the onion, cabbage, and any other vegetables that did not come pre-chopped/shredded. 4. Heat olive oil in a large sauce pan or wok over medium-high heat. Add onions and cook for 2 to 3 minutes until they start to soften. Add carrots and cook for another 3 to 4 minutes. 5. Mix cauliflower in with the rice when it’s done cooking. Add them both to the pan/wok with your vegetables. Add shredded cabbage and edamame. 6. Add half of your sauce to your vegetable/rice mixture and stir well to distribute evenly. 7. Divide the meal among 4 bowls. Top each with the remaining sauce and sliced avocado. Ingredient Variations and Substitutions If you can't find riced cauliflower, you can pulse fresh cauliflower florets in the food processor until they reach a rice-like consistency. Most of the vegetables can be swapped based on what you have in the fridge. For example, spinach instead of cabbage or zucchini instead of onion. Peanut or almond butter can be used in place of tahini for a slightly nuttier taste. https://www.verywellfit.com kalip
  14. Will Exercise Reverse the Harms of Sitting? Tethered to our televisions and computers, Americans are sitting even more than in years past, according to a new study. And while prolonged sitting has long been linked with a higher risk of obesity, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and death, another new study found that exercise may blunt some of the risks. While researchers say it’s no surprise that we’re all sitting more, they don’t all agree about how much exercise can help. Sitting Study Details In the U.S., total sitting time from 2007 to 2016 rose by about an hour a day, to 8.2 hours for teens and 6.4 hours for adults, says Yin Cao, ScD, assistant professor of surgery in the Division of Public Health Sciences at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. She is the senior author of the study that tracked Americans' sitting habits. (Data on children's total sitting time was not collected.) Cao’s team used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001 through 2016 to track the sitting behaviours of nearly 52,000 children, teens, and adults. The survey had separate questions on time spent sitting to watch TV or videos and time spent sitting for computer use outside of school or work needs. By age group, the percentage of people who watched at least 2 hours a day of TV or videos in 2015-2016 included: 62% of children 59% of teens, and 65% of adults (84% of those 65 and above). Those times are averages. Overall, across all the age groups, up to 38% watched 3 hours a day or more, and up to 23% watched for 4 hours or more daily. While these daily TV and video viewing times remained fairly stable over the 15-year period, leisure time computer use rose, driving the overall increase in sedentary behaviour, Cao says. Time spent on computers -- meaning traditional desktop computers or laptops -- outside of school or work increased in all age groups over the 15-year period. Comparing 2015-2016 to 2001: 56% of children spent an hour or more on computers, up from 43%. 57% of teens did, up from 53%. 50% of adults did, up from 29%. And these numbers don't capture all sedentary behaviour. "A missing component is how much time is spent sitting and using handheld devices," Cao says. That data is not collected in the NHANES survey. "The findings on computer use are not surprising as we know technology changes," she says. "We were surprised that time on TV and video [viewing] was stable, as we thought it would be decreased with the increase in computer time." Some groups are more likely to sit too much, Cao found, including non-Hispanic black people, overweight people, and boys. Exercise Study Details In the other study, researchers looked at the sitting and exercise habits of nearly 150,000 Australians ages 45 and older, from 2006-2009, to see if higher levels of exercise could eliminate the health risks of sitting. As exercise levels rose, risks declined, says lead author Emmanuel Stamatakis, PhD, a professor of physical activity, lifestyle, and population health at the University of Sydney. He calls 150 minutes of activity a week ''the magic threshold" when risks start to decline. The participants reported how many hours a day they spent sitting, standing, and sleeping, as well as how much time they took part in moderate to vigorous physical activity. The researchers tracked deaths from any cause until June 2017, nearly 9 years after the original survey, and death from heart disease through December 2015, a follow-up of more than 7 years. During that period, more than 8,600 of the 150,000 study participants died (more than 1,600 from heart-related causes). Sitting more than 6 hours daily was linked with a higher risk of death and was strongest in people who did not meet the recommendation of at least 150 minutes of activity a week, Stamatakis says. Among people who reported no physical activity, those who sat more than 8 hours a day were 1.5 times more likely to die during the follow-up than those who sat less than 4 hours a day. While risks began to decline with 150 minutes of activity a week, people taking part in the study needed to get more than 300 minutes a week to eliminate the risk, Stamatakis says. Replacing sitting time with standing ''doesn't seem to do much," he says, but replacing sitting with physical activity was consistently linked with less risk. "Moderate to vigorous activity includes walking, sports, and exercise such as running or playing tennis, hiking, strenuous work in the garden, or vigorous housework," Stamatakis says. U.S. guidelines say adults should get at least 150 minutes (2.5 hours) to 300 minutes (5 hours) a week of moderate-intensity activity; 75 minutes to 150 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity; or an equal combination of both. Few Americans get the recommended amount of activity, with 65% reporting doing less than the minimum. ‘Just the Tip of the Iceberg’ Not everyone agrees that exercise can combat the effects of hours of sitting. In its 2016 scientific statement, the American Heart Association says that being sedentary could make you more likely to have heart disease and stroke, and that moderate to vigorous physical activity does not cancel out the impact of being sedentary. Nieca Goldberg, MD, medical director of the Joan H. Tisch Centre for Women's Health at NYU Langone Health in New York City, calls the exercise study results promising, but she says more research is needed. Both studies show the unhealthy downside of technology, she says, and Stamatakis agrees. "The health risks of excessive screen media use go well beyond the increase in sedentary behaviour they impose; sitting is just the tip of the iceberg," he says. He cites social isolation, screen addiction, and other mental health issues. Figuring out how to moderate screen media use is an ongoing challenge for health professionals, he says. https://www.webmd.com/ kalip
  15. Want to take years off your face? These treatments can rejuvenate your skin An increasing array of nonsurgical products and procedures aim to reduce the effects of time and sun exposure. It's often said that our lives are written on our faces. But if you feel like doing a little editing—erasing a few fine lines, softening a deep furrow, or evening out some patchy spots—there's an increasing array of products and procedures to help rejuvenate skin worn by time and sun exposure. When it comes to skin treatments, there's lots of good news in therapies for medical conditions as well as cosmetic concerns," says Dr. Kenneth Arndt, adjunct professor of dermatology at Harvard Medical School and medical editor of the Harvard Special Health Report Skin Care and Repair. A growing population of healthy, active older women who want to look as young as they feel has spurred the development of skin rejuvenation techniques that are more subtle and have much shorter recovery times than facelifts. "It's important to choose your treatments with care and to check and double-check the reputation and accreditation of clinicians performing invasive skin procedures," Dr. Arndt says. You may want to consult a dermatologist to weigh the possible risks and likely benefits of various treatments. Cosmetic procedures aren't covered by insurance, so cost might also be an important factor in choosing a skin rejuvenation procedure. The most common procedures The following are several often-used techniques to remove fine wrinkles, scars, uneven pigmentation, and other imperfections. Botox. Injections of botulinum toxin—a category that includes Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin—are relatively affordable, have very few risks, and require no recovery time. And they're quite effective at temporarily smoothing a wrinkled face, brow, or neck. Soft tissue fillers. Injections of soft-tissue fillers under the skin can add height to cheekbones, improve the jaw line, diminish acne or surgical scars, restore fullness to hollow cheeks and eyes, fill fine vertical lines, resculpt lips, and fill in nasolabial folds (the deep lines that run from the outside of the nostrils to the corners of the mouth). Some fillers, such as hyaluronic acid and poly-L-lactic acid, are eventually absorbed by the body. Others contain tiny beads of solid materials suspended in gel. The gel is absorbed over time, and the beads form a scaffold for collagen growth. Chemical peels. Peels are used to treat wrinkles, age spots, discoloration, precancerous skin growths, and superficial scarring. An acid solution— usually glycolic, salicylic, or trichloroacetic acid—is applied to the skin, dissolving skin cells and removing the top layers of the epidermis. The effects vary based on how deeply the peel penetrates, which is determined by the type and strength of the solution used. Microdermabrasion. In this procedure, the doctor or aesthetician sands an area with tiny aluminium hydroxide crystals to create smoother-looking skin. It's relatively inexpensive, and no recovery time is needed. Micro needling. This technique—in which a doctor repeatedly applies an electric or battery-operated instrument containing multiple small, thin, sharp needles to the skin—isn't as painful as it sounds. The needles cause tiny injuries that stimulate the production of collagen and elastin. Therapeutic substances, such as hyaluronic acid or ascorbic acid, can be applied before or after needling so the substance penetrates deeply. his procedure is relatively risk-free and inexpensive. Laser therapy. Lasers can remove moderate to deep lines and wrinkles and significantly improve skin tone, texture, and tightness. Lasers' ability to target specific types of cells in distinct skin layers enables them to treat conditions such as port-wine stains, pigmented birthmarks, and spider veins. They can also erase acne pits and many other scars. Your dermatologist or cosmetic surgeon can help you determine which type of laser therapy is best for you. Yes, you can try these at home! Home chemical peels and micro-derm-abrasion kits generally have the same ingredients as medical professionals use, but in lower concentrations. There are also a variety of home micro needling rollers that can be used to deliver retinols, moisturisers, and other compounds into the skin. Home laser, LED light, and ultrasound devices are also less powerful than professional equipment, but they can be effective if you have the patience to perform treatments on a frequent basis for many weeks or months. These products and devices can remove dead skin and diminish scars and fine lines safely for a fraction of the cost of professional treatment. Because the results are less dramatic, non-prescription options work best for minor skin flaws. Be sure to read and follow directions to use them safely. https://www.health.harvard.edu/ kalip
  16. How Coronary Artery Disease Is Treated Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a serious condition that can have life-altering complications if it is not treated. Lifestyle changes such as exercise and smoking cessation, which can slow the progression or reverse the disease, are usually recommended. Prescriptions, such as statins and beta blockers; specialised procedures, such as angioplasty; or surgeries, such as coronary artery bypass may also be necessary, depending on the severity of your disease. Lifestyle Coronary artery disease develops over time, and you can adapt some of your habits to slow the progression of atherosclerosis and cholesterol build-up. These lifestyle changes have even been shown to help decrease the degree of disease over time. Moreover, other treatments for CAD are unlikely to be helpful in the long term unless you also take these steps: Smoking cessation: Smoking damages the inner lining of the coronary arteries. Stopping will prevent further damage and give your body the opportunity to remodel cells and tissues, including those in the inner lining of your arteries. Over time, your CAD can improve as a result. Diabetes control: If you have diabetes, it's important that you keep your blood sugar at optimal levels. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to worsening heart disease, as well as other complications. Management of diabetes involves a combination of dietary strategies and medication. Heart-healthy diet: Eating a diet that's low in saturated fats and trans fats prevent the worsening of CAD. As you work to make this change, choose lean sources of protein, such as seafood, nuts, and fat-free or low-fat dairy products. Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, all of which are high in antioxidants, have the added benefit of also helping to reverse the disease. Exercise: Exercise helps to maintain target cholesterol levels. In general, try to get 30 to 60 minutes of activity on most days. If you have a heart arrhythmia or a congenital heart defect, talk to your doctor about any necessary exercise restrictions before you begin a program. Stress management: Stress may exacerbate CAD by releasing hormones that raise blood pressure and damage the lining of the blood vessels. Managing stress is not an easy feat. At-home strategies include relaxation, time management, focusing on your priorities, building healthy relationships, and avoiding emotionally toxic people and situations. However, many people cannot manage stress without professional help. If you feel that stress is a major part of your life, discuss it with your doctor. Prescriptions If you have CAD, there is a very high chance that you may need to take one or more prescription medications. Some of these medications treat CAD itself, actually preventing the disease from worsening inside the blood vessels. Other medications, while they do not directly treat CAD, are necessary to reduce the chances of having a heart attack or a stroke, or to help in dealing with the consequences and complications of the condition. For example, medications may help prevent blood vessel constriction (narrowing) if you have high blood pressure or may help your heart function if you have a damaged heart muscle from a heart attack. Reducing CAD Progression Your doctor may opt for one or more of the following: Statins: Statins are used to lower cholesterol. They're typically prescribed to prevent cholesterol build up in your blood vessels, which is one of the major contributors to CAD. Lipitor (atorvastatin), Lescol (fluvastatin), Altoprev (lovastatin), and Zocor (simvastatin) are some examples. The most common side effect is muscle pain. Less common side effects include liver damage, increased blood sugar levels, and neurological effects such as confusion or memory loss. Repatha (evolocumab): Evolocumab has been shown to quickly decrease LDL-C levels (a type of harmful cholesterol) in those with a genetic disorder called familial hypercholesterolemia. It is a fully human antibody that interacts with proteins and with the liver to lower LDL, an unhealthy fat that contributes to CAD. Antibiotics: Antibiotics are used to treat heart infections such as endocarditis and bacterial pericarditis, which can exacerbate CAD. If you have a heart infection, your doctor will do a blood test to determine the cause of your infection and prescribe an antibiotic or a combination of them based on the results. You will likely need to get these drugs intravenously (via an IV), which will likely require hospitalisation for at least a week. Once your doctor can see that the infection is clearing, you may be able to go to a clinic for intravenous treatments or even have them at home. Preventing Blood Clots Blood clots can cause heart attacks and strokes if you have atherosclerotic disease. Prescriptions that can help prevent blood clots include: Antiplatelet medications: These drugs are used to stop blood clots from forming by preventing the platelets in your blood from sticking together. Plavix (clopidogrel), Effient (prasugrel), and Brilinta (ticagrelor) are examples. Potential side effects include headaches, dizziness, nausea, constipation, diarrhoea, indigestion, abdominal pain, nosebleeds, and bruising easily. Anticoagulants: Anticoagulants keep blood clots from forming and prevent any blood clots that you have from getting bigger with a mechanism that is different from that of antiplatelets. They also prevent blood clot formation in diseased vessels to reduce the risk of a stroke or heart attack. Examples of anticoagulants include Coumadin (warfarin), heparin, Pradaxa (dabigatran), and Eliquis (apixaban). Side effects may include excessive bleeding, dizziness, weakness, hair loss, and rashes. Improving Heart Function This goal is centred around helping to prevent complications related to CAD. Prescription options include: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: ACE inhibitors work by relaxing your blood vessels and helping your heart to work more efficiently. They are used in CAD to prevent your coronary blood vessels from having too narrow a lumen (opening), which is more likely to be obstructed by a blood clot. Examples of ACE inhibitors are Lotensin (benazepril), Vasotec (enalapril), Capoten (captopril), and Monopril (fosinopril). Potential side effects include a dry cough, high potassium levels in your blood, dizziness, fatigue, headaches, and loss of your sense of taste. Angiotensin II receptor blockers: These medications work by helping your blood vessels dilate so that you are less likely to experience blockage of your coronary vessels. Examples of angiotensin II receptor blockers include Atacand (candesartan), Teveten (eprosartan), Avapro (irbesartan), and Cozaar (losartan). Side effects can include dizziness, high potassium levels in your blood, and swelling of the body. Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNIs):Entresto (sacubitril/valsartan) contains a combination of angiotensin II receptor blockers and neprilysin inhibitors that helps your blood vessels dilate, improves blood flow to and lessens the strain on your heart, and reduces the amount of salt your body retains. Potential side effects are dizziness, light-headedness, or a cough. Beta blockers: These medications help reduce your blood pressure by blocking epinephrine to help your heart beat slowly and less forcefully and to dilate your blood vessels. Commonly prescribed beta blockers include Sectral (acebutolol), Tenormin (atenolol), Kerlone (betaxolol), and Zebeta (bisoprolol). Side effects may include cold hands and feet, fatigue, and weight gain. Calcium channel blockers: Calcium channel blockers partially block the effect of calcium on heart muscle cells and blood vessels to reduce blood pressure and slow down the heart rate. Calcium channel blockers include Norvasc (amlodipine), Cardizem and Tiazac (diltiazem), Plendil (felodipine), and Sular (nisoldipine). Side effects can include constipation, headache, perspiration, drowsiness, rash, dizziness, heart palpitations, nausea, and swelling in your feet or legs. Diuretics: Diuretics prevent fluid and sodium from building up in your body to decrease your blood pressure. Examples of diuretics include Midamor (amiloride), Bumex (bumetanide), Diuril (chlorothiazide), and Hygroton (chlorthalidone). While they're generally fairly safe, you will probably notice increased urination. Other possible side effects include low sodium levels in your blood, dizziness, dehydration, headaches, muscle cramps, joint problems, and erectile dysfunction. Vasodilators: Also known as nitrates, vasodilators lessen your heart's workload by allowing your blood vessels to relax and dilate, increasing blood and oxygen to your heart. Because they can have a lot of side effects, vasodilators are generally only prescribed if other methods aren't working to control your blood pressure. Commonly prescribed vasodilators include Isordil (isosorbide dinitrate), Natrecor (nesiritide), nitro-glycerine tablets, and Apresoline (hydralazine). Side effects can include fast heartbeat, heart palpitations, fluid retention, nausea, vomiting, skin flushing, headaches, unusual hair growth, and joint or chest pain. For Heart Attack or Arrhythmia Due to CAD Aldosterone antagonists: These potassium-sparing diuretics are used for heart failure and can help you live longer while improving your symptoms if you have suffered a heart attack due to CAD. Aldactone (spironolactone) and Inspra (eplerenone) are available options. One potential side effect is dangerously high potassium levels in your blood, so close monitoring by your doctor is necessary. Antiarrhythmic medications: Antiarrhythmic medications help regulate your heartbeat and are used to treat arrhythmias that can occur if CAD causes a heart attack affecting the pacemaker of the heart. Commonly prescribed antiarrhythmics include Cordarone (amiodarone), Tambocor (flecainide), Rhythmol (propafenone), and quinidine. Side effects may include taste changes, appetite loss, sensitivity to sunlight, diarrhoea, and constipation. Digitalis: Also known as Lanoxin (digoxin), this medication is used for heart failure and certain heart arrhythmias. Common potential side effects are dizziness, fainting, and slow or fast heartbeat. Over-the-Counter Therapies Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), an over-the-counter antiplatelet medication, has long been recommended for prevention of blood clots for people who are at risk of heart attacks and strokes. It may be recommended for you if you have CAD. While you can get it without a prescription, you should still consult with your doctor before taking it. Do not start taking aspirin based on the advice of a friend or something you may have read. If you are taking any other blood thinners, you should not take aspirin, as the effects of more than one blood thinner add up to produce a dangerous risk of bleeding. Specialist-Driven Procedures If lifestyle changes and medications aren't effectively treating your CAD, your doctor may recommend surgery or specialised procedures. Procedures are especially useful when you have an area of severe CAD in your arteries. If you have not had a heart attack or a stroke, surgical treatment can prevent you from having one. However, even if you have experienced a heart attack or a stroke, interventional treatment is often necessary to prevent additional events resulting from your CAD. Options that will be considered include: Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI): Also known as angioplasty, PCI involves threading a tube with a deflated balloon attached to it through one of your veins to your coronary artery. Once it is positioned in the target location of CAD within an artery, the balloon is then inflated to widen the narrow or blocked regions in your coronary artery. This expansion allows blood to flow through your coronary artery much more freely. Endarterectomy: For some people with the atherosclerotic disease, surgically removing fatty build-up from the arterial walls can "clean" the inside of the artery to open up an area of partial or complete blockage. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG): A CABG is a major surgical procedure that is used when your coronary artery is blocked. Your surgeon will use an artery or vein from your leg, arm, or chest to replace a severely diseased coronary vessel. This procedure reroutes blood around the blockage in your coronary vessel, allowing the blood and oxygen to flow more freely. You may have one or several grafts done, depending upon how many areas of blockage you have. Stent placement: A stent is a wire mesh tube that is placed inside an artery, either surgically or percutaneously (through a needle puncture of the skin), remaining in the artery to help keep it open. Complementary Medicine (CAM) There are functional foods and supplements that may help in treating CAD. Evidence shows that these supplements may reduce CAD, but you should not use them as a replacement for medication or surgery if you have severe disease. It's a good idea to talk to your doctor before increasing or adding these to your diet. Flaxseed: A number of studies have shown that supplementing your diet with flaxseed may reduce bad cholesterol if your cholesterol is already high. You can mix flaxseed with food and drinks. Talk to your doctor about how much you should consume, as ingesting too much can cause problems like constipation or even bowel obstruction. Flaxseed also might not be good for people with certain other health conditions. Omega-3 fatty acids: The omega-3 fatty acids in fish may help decrease triglycerides, lower your cholesterol, and reduce inflammation. In fact, if you have an atherosclerotic disease or have recently had a heart attack, the American Heart Association recommends that you take omega-3 fish oil supplements every day to help treat your disease. You can get the same benefits from eating fish that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids at least twice a week. Tuna, salmon, mackerel, lake trout, herring, and sardines have the highest amounts, but most other fish are beneficial as well. Garlic: In a review of studies, it was found that garlic supplements have the potential to help prevent heart disease, as well as treat it. The studies included in the review used different types of garlic preparations such as garlic powder, aged garlic extract, or garlic oil. In general, the aged garlic extract had the most consistent effect. The studies showed that garlic supplementation had a positive effect on risk factors for atherosclerotic disease such as calcium build-up in the coronary arteries, artery stiffness, and a biomarker of inflammation called C-reactive protein. Garlic is very safe and the most common side effects are body odour and bad breath, which can be minimised if you take your garlic in capsule form instead of eating it raw. However, garlic may cause some digestive issues like abdominal pain, bloating, gas, and, rarely, allergic reactions. https://www.verywellhealth.com/heart-disease-4014709 kalip
  17. Could Common Heart Meds Lower Prostate Cancer Risk Good news for men: That blood pressure medication you're taking might be doing double duty, helping reduce your risk of developing prostate cancer, a new study shows. Researchers found that a beta blocker called atenolol cut men's risk of intermediate-grade prostate cancer about in half, compared with men not taking a beta blocker. It also appeared to significantly reduce the risk of low-grade prostate cancer; the findings showed. However, the effect only was found with atenolol (Tenormin). Two other beta blockers -- metoprolol (Lopressor/Toprol XL) and carvedilol (Coreg) -- did not appear to provide any protection against prostate cancer. "Atenolol was the only one that was significantly associated with a protection in having a diagnosis of prostate cancer," said co-researcher Dr. Paul Frenette. He is chairman and director of the Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City. Beta blockers lower blood pressure by blocking the effects of the adrenaline hormone, allowing your heart to beat more slowly and with less force, according to the Mayo Clinic. The drugs also relax blood vessels, helping them to open up and improve blood flow. Beta blockers also have another effect, inhibiting the cells lining the inside of veins and arteries, and making it more difficult to form new blood vessels. "You basically change the metabolism of these cells, and they cannot make new blood vessels very well," Frenette said. Since cancerous tumours rely on new blood vessels for sustenance, researchers theorized that beta blockers might slow or block the progression of prostate cancer. To test their theory, the investigators looked at nearly 4,200 men who received a prostate biopsy between 2006 and 2016. Of those men, about 670 had been taking beta blockers. The researchers compared the beta blocker they were taking against whether they had been diagnosed with prostate cancer and, if they had, how advanced their cancer was. too early," Frenette said. "I think it should be looked at with bigger studies to be able to confirm this is indeed an effect." Dr. Sam Chang, chairman of urologic surgery at Vanderbilt University Medical Centre in Nashville, Tenn., agreed that it's too soon to turn this finding into clinical action. "Bottom line, this appears interesting," Chang said. "Much larger epidemiological studies are going to be necessary to see if there really is a potential benefit." The findings were presented Friday at the American Urological Association's annual meeting, in Chicago. Research presented at meetings is typically considered preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal. The study was funded by the U.S. National Cancer Institute. More information The American Cancer Society has more about prostate cancer. https://consumer.healthday.com/ kalip
  18. More evidence that exercise can boost mood. Running for 15 minutes a day or walking for an hour reduces the risk of major depression, according to a recent study. It may be possible to outrun depression, according to a study published online January 23 by JAMA Psychiatry. "We saw a 26% decrease in odds for becoming depressed for each major increase in objectively measured physical activity," says study author Karmel Choi, a clinical and research fellow at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. "This increase in physical activity is what you might see on your activity tracker if you replaced 15 minutes of sitting with 15 minutes of running, or one hour of sitting with one hour of moderate activity like brisk walking." Cause or effect? This isn't the first study to show that exercise may benefit mood. But until now it's largely been something of a chicken-and-egg discussion — which came first? "We hear a lot that exercise and mood are connected. What we don't know for sure is whether being physically active can improve emotional well-being, or if we simply move less when we feel sad or depressed," says Choi. This study aimed to find out. "We wanted to see if there might be a causal connection, in either direction, between physical activity and depression," says Choi. "Does physical activity protect against depression? Or does depression simply reduce physical activity? Our study allowed us to untangle those questions in a powerful new way using genetic data." Study technique To do this, the study applied a technique known as Mendelian randomization, using data from two large genetic databases that included hundreds of thousands of people. Having access to genetic data allowed researchers to use genetic variations between people as a kind of natural experiment to better see how exercise affects depression, and vice versa, says Choi. What they found is that exercise was able to independently reduce the risk for depression. People who moved more, they found, had a significantly lower risk for major depressive disorder — but only when the exercise was measured objectively using a tracking device, not when people self-reported how much exercise they performed. Identifying types of movement People are not always accurate when it comes to assessing or keeping track of how much they're truly moving. "We see in the research literature that objective and self-reported measures of physical activity don't always line up," says Choi. "Objective measures offer unique perks because they don't rely on people's memory and are not affected by people wanting to present themselves in a certain way." In addition, the tracking device was better at assessing overall movement. It didn't just give people credit for formal exercise. It also measured how much they moved throughout the day during ordinary activities. "This can include taking the stairs or walking to the store or putting away laundry, things that people may not recognize as being active but may add up," says Choi. This is good news, because it means you don't need to be huffing and puffing on a stair machine to reduce your risk of depression. Little movements add up "What our study would say is that any kind of movement can add up to keep depression at bay. I think that's why our study findings were especially appealing. It didn't say you have to run a marathon, do hours of aerobics, or be a CrossFit master just to see benefits on depression," says Choi. So, the message is this: If you do love a good, hearty gym workout, keep going. But if you don't, just getting off the couch and moving for a little while can help. Ideally, to prevent depression you should do at least 15 minutes a day of higher-intensity exercise, such as running, or at least an hour of lower-intensity exercise, such as walking or housework. "Intentionally moving your body in more gentle ways throughout the day — like walking, stretching, taking the stairs, doing the dishes — can still add up in good ways for your mood. I think that's an encouraging message," says Choi. https://www.health.harvard.edu kalip
  19. Stents vs. Bypass Surgery: Which Is Better? Anyone who has coronary artery disease (CAD) needs to have aggressive medical therapy and risk factor modification, both to reduce the risk of heart attack, and to control symptoms of angina (if present). Sometimes medical therapy alone is insufficient, and revascularisation therapy is needed. Revascularisation means that areas of significant obstruction in the coronary arteries are relieved with either angioplasty and a stent, or with bypass surgery (also called coronary artery bypass grafting, or CABG). So, in any person diagnosed with CAD, the doctor and patient should consider two questions. First, is medical therapy alone sufficient, or should revascularisation also be done? Second, if revascularisation is recommended, should it be with stenting, or with CABG? When Is Revascularisation Recommended? In most people who have CAD, medical therapy, along with appropriate lifestyle changes to improve cardiac risk, should be the approach of choice. Specifically, in people who have stable angina (angina that is predictable in onset, and that occurs only under specific circumstances such as exercise), medical therapy is as effective as revascularisation in preventing heart attacks and reducing the risk of cardiovascular death. So medical therapy in such cases is virtually always the treatment of choice. However, revascularisation therapy is usually the better choice under some circumstances. These include: People who have the type of heart attack known as acute ST-Segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). People with either unstable angina or non-ST-segment myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), who do not become stable quickly with aggressive medical therapy. People who have stable angina that is insufficiently controlled despite maximal medical therapy, or who cannot tolerate the medical treatment necessary to control it. People whose CAD anatomy puts them in a category where Revascularisation is more likely than medical therapy to improve survival. These include people who have significant blockage in their left main coronary artery, and those who have significant blockages in all three major coronary arteries — the right, left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries. Read more about coronary artery anatomy. When Stents Are Preferred Over CABG Once it is decided that revascularisation is required, the next decision is whether to use angioplasty and stenting, or CABG. Stenting is generally preferred over CABG in patients with STEMI, since it is the quicker way to open the blocked coronary artery. Stenting is also usually preferred in people with the other forms of acute coronary syndromes (ACS, such as NSTEMI or unstable angina), when rapidly opening the blocked coronary artery is deemed to be necessary. In people with stable angina who have failed with medical therapy, stenting is generally preferred for those who have CAD involving a single coronary artery. In those with stable angina who need Revascularisation and have two-vessel CAD, stenting is also generally recommended unless they also have diabetes, or their coronary artery anatomy is considered to be complex. When Is CABG Preferred Over Stents? CABG is believed to yield better long-term outcomes in people with 3-vessel CAD. CABG is thought to also give better results than stenting in most people with disease of the left main coronary artery. However, in those who have ACS due to blockage in the left main artery, stenting may be the safer choice since it can be done much more quickly. CABG is a better option than stenting in people with 2-vessel CAD who also have diabetes. Finally, in general, people revascularised with CABG less frequently need repeat revascularisation than those who receive stents. For this reason, CABG should be at least discussed as an option with almost anyone who needs Revascularisation. The SYNTAX Trial If we were going to summarise the situations in which CABG is preferred over stenting, we would say that the outcomes tend to be better with CABG in people who have “complex” CAD. “Complex” CAD includes people with 3-vessel disease, left main CAD, some people with 2-vessel disease, and almost anyone with diabetes who has CAD. The SYNTAX trial, published in 2009, is the most definitive randomised clinical trial to compare stents to CABG in patients with complex CAD. This study showed that patients treated with CABG had significantly fewer endpoint events (a composite of death, stroke, heart attack, and the need for repeat Revascularisation) than patients receiving stents (12.4% vs 17.8% after 12 months). Similar results were reported in the BEST trial in 2015. So the two major randomised clinical trials comparing stents to CABG in patients with complex CAD both came out in favour of CABG. Cardiologists point out, however, that in the SYNTAX trial, while the composite endpoint was worse with stents, the short-term risk of stroke appears higher after CABG (0.6% for stents vs. 2.2% for CABG) after 12 months. This is a legitimate point, though the risk of stroke was statistically equivalent in both groups after three years. Investigators who ran the SYNTAX trial have since developed what they call a “SYNTAX score,” which essentially grades the characteristics of a patient’s CAD in terms of its complexity. Patients with lower SYNTAX scores appear to do relatively better with stents than those with higher SYNTAX scores. However, while many cardiologists use the SYNTAX score to help decide whether a person with complex CAD should have stenting or CABG , this scoring system itself has not been tested in a clinical trial. A Word From Verywell The bottom line is that for most people who need coronary artery revascularisation, and who have severe triple-vessel CAD or significant blockage in their left main coronary artery, CABG usually should be considered the primary mode of therapy. Stenting is generally preferred in people who have ACS, in people with single-vessel CAD, and in many people with 2-vessel CAD who do not have diabetes. Using stents instead of CABG for complex CAD ought to be reserved for people who, after understanding all the risks and benefits, still opt for the less invasive approach. https://www.verywellhealth.com/heart-disease-4014709 kalip
  20. Obesity: Study of 2.8 million shows increased disease and death risks A major study has highlighted the scale of the obesity problem in the UK, with a significant risk of death and disease attached to weight gain. People with a body mass index (BMI) of 30-35 were at 70% higher risk of developing heart failure than their healthy weight peers (18.5-25 BMI). The study of 2.8 million adults showed even slightly overweight people were twice as likely to get Type 2 diabetes. Public Health England said "sustained action" was needed to tackle obesity. The study, to be presented at the European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Glasgow, also showed: For those with a BMI of 35-40, the risk of Type 2 diabetes was almost nine times higher, and 12 times higher for sleep apnoea People with severe obesity (BMI of 40-45) were 12 times more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes and had a risk of sleep apnoea that was 22 times greater People with a BMI of 40-45 had triple the risk of heart failure, high blood pressure, and dyslipidaemia (abnormal levels of cholesterol and other fats in the blood) BMI of 40-45 was also linked to a 50% higher risk of dying prematurely from any cause The study's author, Christiane Haase, of healthcare firm Novo Nordisk which funded the work, said: "With the number of people living with obesity almost tripling worldwide over the past 30 years (105 million people in 1975 to 650 million in 2016), our findings have serious implications for public health." BMI and obesity: Where are you on the UK fat scale? We calculate BMI using the standard formula of a person's mass in kg divided by the square of their height in metres (kg/m2) and display it to one decimal place. Where a user's data is entered in imperial units, we first convert to metric and then carry out the BMI calculation. The BMI result is assigned to a standard category: Less than 18.5 - underweight 18.5 to 24.9 - healthy weight 25 to 29.9 - overweight 30 to 39.9 - obese (split into two categories for the new study) 40 and over - very obese (also known as morbidly obese) The research found that the risk of developing serious health problems was highly dependent on whether or not people already had issues at the start of the study. For example, having high blood pressure at the start of the study was strongly associated with developing dyslipidaemia, chronic kidney disease and Type 2 diabetes. Researchers looked at health, death and BMI data from more than 2.8 million adults between January 2000 and July 2018 from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. This was linked with hospital data to estimate the risk for serious health problems. But the authors stress that their findings show observational differences, so no firm conclusions can be drawn about cause and effect, and they point to a number of limitations: the study participants must have seen their doctor and had their weight measured for a reason other, unmeasured factors may have influenced the results Victoria Taylor, nutrition lead at the British Heart Foundation, said: "More than a quarter of UK adults (28%) are obese and it's something that we urgently need action on." Novo Nordisk manufactures medications for Type 2 diabetes. https://www.bbc.com/news/health kalip
  21. Opioid painkillers 'must carry prominent warnings' All opioid medicines in the UK will carry prominent warnings on their labels saying they can cause addiction, the health secretary has announced. Matt Hancock acted after figures in England and Wales revealed a-more-than 60% increase in prescriptions for opioid painkillers in the last decade. People needed protection "from the darker side to painkillers," he said. Health experts welcomed the move, saying opioids can cause "life-altering and sometimes fatal addictions". pioids, such as morphine or fentanyl, can be highly effective for managing severe pain but they can also be highly addictive, the Department of Health (DoH) said. It warned the number of prescriptions in England and Wales issued for these sorts of medicines had risen dramatically from more than 14 million in 2008 to 23 million last year. The DoH added there are also some opioids available over the counter, such as codeine-based painkillers, which are weaker in strength but can also cause addiction. From 2008 to 2018, the number of codeine-related deaths in England and Wales has more than doubled to more than 150, it said. In Scotland, codeine-related deaths spiked at 43 in 2016, dropping to 27 in 2017, National Records of Scotland said. In Northern Ireland, there were 16 codeine-related deaths in 2017. What are opioids? A large group of drugs used mainly to treat pain Includes naturally occurring chemicals like morphine and codeine, as well as synthetic drugs Codeine, morphine and methadone are among opioids judged by the World Health Organization as essential for treatment of pain and end-of-life care Some opioid medications - methadone and buprenorphine - are used to help people break their addictions to stronger opioids like heroin What are they used for? Moderate and severe pain relief Limited time treatment of pain that does not respond to standard painkillers like aspirin, ibuprofen and paracetamol Usually used for acute pain - such as after surgery or terminally-ill cancer patients Why are they dangerous? They can be highly addictive Pleasurable feeling that results from taking opioids can contribute to psychological dependence on the drugs Higher doses can slow breathing and heart rate, which can lead to death Mixing with alcohol or other sedatives such as benzodiazepines can also have serious consequences Mr Hancock said: "I have been incredibly concerned by the recent increase in people addicted to opioid drugs. "Painkillers were a major breakthrough in modern medicine and are hugely important to help people manage pain alongside their busy lives but they must be treated with caution. "We know that too much of any painkiller can damage your health, and some opioids are highly addictive and can ruin lives like an illegal drug. "Things are not as bad here as in America, but we must act now to protect people from the darker side to painkillers." 'Like thousands of insects inside your skin' Lisa Peake, from London I was prescribed painkillers for chronic neck pain after an accident in February 2014 but the pain didn't go away. I was taking codeine four to five times a day, @@@@ as a top-up once a day, as well as naproxen and co-dydramol four or five times a day. Opioids affect your mental capacity, you feel dizzy, you can't concentrate and it's hard for you to do your job. I went on a three-week hospital pain management programme in October 2016 and they helped wean me off the meds and rely on other methods of pain control. I had all the symptoms, albeit to a lesser extent, of a drug addict doing the same. It feels like you've got thousands of insects inside your skin. You can't find any comfort; you can't sleep and your bowel movements are shot to pieces. Professor Dame Sally Davies, the chief medical officer for England, has welcomed the government action. She said: "We know that long-term use of painkillers can lead to life-altering and sometimes fatal addictions, so I am delighted to see measures put in place to raise awareness of the risks of codeine and prescribed drugs. "It is vital that anyone who is prescribed strong painkillers takes them only as long as they are suffering from serious pain. "As soon as the pain starts to alleviate, the drugs have done their job, and it is important to switch to over-the-counter medication like paracetamol which do not carry the same risk of addiction that comes with long term use." Analysis by Fergus Walsh, BBC medical correspondent Until the late 90s in the UK, opioids were usually restricted to cancer patients and for those in acute pain following surgery, but then they began being increasingly prescribed for chronic pain. As our population ages, the number of people living with low back or nerve pain is soaring. Opioids can be effective in the short term, but don't work for pain that lasts for months or years. The medicine packets already contain leaflets warning about potentially dangerous side-effects and the risks of addiction. Making these more prominent may encourage patients and their doctors to discuss alternatives such as physical and talking therapies. The variation in prescribing rates between NHS regions shows that it is possible to limit their use. Things have been getting worse here, but are nowhere near as bad as the US which has four times the rate of opioid prescriptions as the UK. Public Health England is already undertaking a review into prescription medication addiction and is due to report its findings this year. Under Mr Hancock's plan, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) will have the power to enforce warnings on opioids packaging, following recommendations from the UK's Commission on Human Medicines (CHM) Opioid expert working group. Dr June Raine, director of the MHRA's vigilance and risk management of medicines division, said: "This is an important first step to help minimise the risks of addiction associated with opioid medicines, while supporting patients to get the right information at the right time to support their care." https://www.bbc.com/news/health kalip
  22. Human memory: How we make, remember, and forget memories Human memory happens in many parts of the brain at once, and some types of memories stick around longer than others. FROM THE MOMENT we are born, our brains are bombarded by an immense amount of information about ourselves and the world around us. So, how do we hold on to everything we've learned and experienced? Memories. Humans retain different types of memories for different lengths of time. Short-term memories last seconds to hours, while long-term memories last for years. We also have a working memory, which lets us keep something in our minds for a limited time by repeating it. Whenever you say a phone number to yourself over and over to remember it, you're using your working memory. Another way to categorise memories is by the subject of the memory itself, and whether you are consciously aware of it. Declarative memory, also called explicit memory, consists of the sorts of memories you experience consciously. Some of these memories are facts or “common knowledge” : things like the capital of Portugal (Lisbon), or the number of cards in a standard deck of playing cards (52). Others consist of past events you've experienced, such as a childhood birthday. Nondeclarative memory, also called implicit memory, unconsciously builds up. These include procedural memories, which your body uses to remember the skills you've learned. Do you play an instrument or ride a bicycle? Those are your procedural memories at work. Nondeclarative memories also can shape your body's unthinking responses, like salivating at the sight of your favourite food or tensing up when you see something you fear. In general, declarative memories are easier to form than nondeclarative memories. It takes less time to memorise a country's capital than it does to learn how to play the violin. But nondeclarative memories stick around more easily. Once you've learned to ride a bicycle, you're not likely to forget. The types of amnesia To understand how we remember things, it's incredibly helpful to study how we forget—which is why neuroscientists study amnesia, the loss of memories or the ability to learn. Amnesia is usually the result of some kind of trauma to the brain, such as a head injury, a stroke, a brain tumour, or chronic alcoholism. There are two main types of amnesia. The first, retrograde amnesia, occurs where you forget things you knew before the brain trauma. Anterograde amnesia is when brain trauma curtails or stops someone's ability to form new memories. The most famous case study of anterograde amnesia is Henry Molaison, who in 1953 had parts of his brain removed as a last-ditch treatment for severe seizures. While Molaison—known when he was alive as H.M.—remembered much of his childhood, he was unable to form new declarative memories. People who worked with him for decades had to re-introduce themselves with every visit. By studying people such as H.M., as well as animals with different types of brain damage, scientists can trace where and how different kinds of memories form in the brain. It seems that short-term and long-term memories don't form in exactly the same way, nor do declarative and procedural memories. There's no one place within the brain that holds all of your memories; different areas of the brain form and store different kinds of memories, and different processes may be at play for each. For instance, emotional responses such as fear reside in a brain region called the amygdala. Memories of the skills you've learned are associated with a different region called the striatum. A region called the hippocampus is crucial for forming, retaining, and recalling declarative memories. The temporal lobes, the brain regions that H.M. was partially missing, play a crucial role in forming and recalling memories. How memories are formed, stored, and recalled Since the 1940s scientists have surmised that memories are held within groups of neurons, or nerve cells, called cell assemblies. Those interconnected cells fire as a group in response to a specific stimulus, whether it's your friend's face or the smell of freshly baked bread. The more the neurons fire together, the more the cells' interconnections strengthen. That way, when a future stimulus triggers the cells, it's more likely that the whole assembly fires. The nerves' collective activity transcribes what we experience as a memory. Scientists are still working through the details of how it works. For a short-term memory to become a long-term memory, it must be strengthened for long-term storage, a process called memory consolidation. Consolidation is thought to take place by several processes. One, called long-term potentiation, consists of individual nerves modifying themselves to grow and talk to their neighbouring nerves differently. That remodelling alters the nerves' connections in the long term, which stabilizes the memory. All animals that have long-term memories use this same basic cellular machinery; scientists worked out the details of long-term potentiation by studying California sea slugs. However, not all long-term memories necessarily have to start as short-term memories. As we recall a memory, many parts of our brain rapidly talk to each other, including regions in the brain's cortex that do high-level information processing, regions that handle our senses' raw inputs, and a region called the medial temporal lobe that seems to help coordinate the process. One recent study found that at the moment when patients recalled newly formed memories, ripples of nerve activity in the medial temporal lobe synced up with ripples in the brain's cortex. Many mysteries of memory remain. How precisely are memories encoded within groups of neurons? How widely distributed in the brain are the cells that encode a given memory? How does our brain activity correspond to how we experience memories? These active areas of research may one day provide new insight into brain function and how to treat memory-related conditions. For instance, recent work has demonstrated that some memories must be “reconsolidated” each time they're recalled. If so, the act of remembering something makes that memory temporarily malleable—letting it be strengthened, weakened, or otherwise altered. Memories may be more easily targeted by medications during reconsolidation, which could help treat conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-body/ kalip
  23. Self-Guided Robot Navigates Through the Heart Many older Americans may remember "Fantastic Voyage" -- the 1966 film where scientists and the vessel they were in shrank to microscopic size and travelled through the human body. Now, science fiction may be getting closer to reality. Researchers say they've created a tiny medical robot that's able to navigate on its own in and around a beating heart. The programmed robotic catheter was able to independently find its way to leaky heart valves in live pigs, according to bioengineers at Boston Children's Hospital. Once it was in place, a surgeon took over and used remote control to guide the device to insert a plug that sealed the defective valve. Surgeons have used joystick-guided robots for years, and researchers have shown that tiny robots can be guided by doctors through the body by external forces such as magnetism, the study authors noted in a hospital news release. But using a robot that could make its own way through the anatomy could reduce surgeons' fatigue and let them focus on more difficult tasks, explained study senior investigator Pierre Dupont. He's chief of paediatric cardiac bioengineering at Boston Children's. "The right way to think about this is through the analogy of a fighter pilot and a fighter plane," he said in the news release. "The fighter plane takes on the routine tasks like flying the plane, so the pilot can focus on the higher-level tasks of the mission." Heart surgeon Dr. Syed Hussain called the technology the "next generation of minimally invasive and robotic interventions." He practices thoracic surgery at Northwell Health's Southside Hospital in Bay Shore, N.Y. "Although these capabilities are in their infancy at this moment, they clearly demonstrate the exciting capability of autonomous robotic technology to perform critical procedural components and more in the near future," said Hussain, who wasn't involved in the new research. As Dupont's group explained, the new robotic catheter has a touch sensor equipped with artificial intelligence and image processing algorithms. This allows it to quickly determine where it is in the heart and where it needs to go. The catheter navigates its way to leaky heart valves using a technique called "wall following," in which the optical touch sensor regularly checks its surroundings, much like how insects use their antennae or rodents use their whiskers to find their way in dark, unfamiliar environments. "The algorithms help the catheter figure out what type of tissue it's touching, where it is in the heart, and how it should choose its next motion to get where we want it to go," Dupont said. The catheter reached the heart valve leaks in nearly the same time it would take a surgeon using either a hand tool or a joystick-controlled robot, Dupont's group said. The report was published April 24 in the journal Science Robotics. Dr. Chad Kliger directs the structural heart disease program at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. He wasn't involved in the new research, but said its ultimate aim is to make heart surgery as minimally invasive as possible. "Minimally invasive heart surgery now affords us the opportunity to fix the heart, all while reducing trauma to the patient, and improving pain and recovery time," he explained. But procedures such as heart valve repair are hugely complex, so anything that helps ease the surgeon's burden is welcome. Technologies such as the tiny autonomous robot should someday "allow the most experienced physicians to operate at the highest level at all times," Kliger said. "It would provide surgeons total relief from performing challenging, but routine tasks," he said, "and allow them to focus on critical components of planning and implanting cardiac devices." The research was funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. More information The American Heart Association has more on heart valve problems. https://consumer.healthday.com/ kalip
  24. "Female-pattern" Coronary Artery Disease Yet another way women can have chest pain with "normal" coronary arteries While coronary artery disease (CAD) is as important in women as it is in men, several factors can make CAD more difficult to diagnose in women. One of these factors is "female-pattern" CAD. In female-pattern CAD, coronary angiography -- the "gold standard" for diagnosing CAD -- is often misinterpreted as being normal. Female-pattern CAD is one of several conditions that can produce CAD with "normal" coronary arteries. Read here about the others. During the disease process known as atherosclerosis, a coronary artery's smooth, elastic lining becomes hardened, stiffened, and swollen with all sorts of "grunge" -- including calcium deposits, fatty deposits, and abnormal inflammatory cells. Atherosclerosis is typically a relatively localised process that produces discrete and localised plaques. These plaques, which can be thought of as large "pimples" that protrude into the channel of an artery, most often cause localised blockages within the artery. (Their localised nature is what makes them amenable to treatment with angioplasty, stents or bypass surgery.) Patients with CAD might have just one or two plaques, or might have dozens distributed throughout their coronary arteries. In women with female-pattern CAD, atherosclerosis does not form discrete plaques, so localised blockages are absent. Instead, the plaques in these women are more diffuse, involving to some degree the entire circumference of the artery, so that the lining of the artery becomes thickened throughout. While there are no discrete areas of blockage, the inner circumference of the artery becomes diffusely narrower. On cardiac catheterisation the coronary arteries appear smooth and essentially normal (though they may often appear "small" in diameter). The prognosis in women with female-pattern CAD is thought to be better than with typical CAD, but this is not a benign condition. Heart attacks and death do occur. Specifically, female-pattern CAD can cause acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ACS occurs because the diffuse plaques can erode and rupture (just as discrete plaques do in more typical CAD), causing the blood to clot within the artery and producing sudden arterial blockage. If the clot is then dissolved with clot-busting drugs, the subsequent heart catheterisation usually shows the underlying "normal" coronary arteries which are typical with female-pattern CAD, thus confounding the cardiologist. How Is Female-pattern CAD Diagnosed? The diagnosis of female-pattern CAD can be made definitively with a relatively new technique called intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. IVUS (which is not routinely performed during catheterisation, and which is not even available in many hospitals) requires inserting a specialised catheter into the coronary artery that uses ultrasound (i.e., echocardiography) to visualise the wall of the artery from within. The diffuse plaques of female-pattern CAD an be identified in this way. In a recent study, more than half the women with symptoms of angina with "normal" coronary arteries had such diffuse plaques identified using IVUS. The presence of female-pattern CAD can be inferred by measuring the ability of the coronary arteries to dilate in response to a drug called acetylcholine. The relatively stiff arteries seen in female-pattern CAD fail to dilate normally. Female-pattern CAD should be suspected in any woman who has had angina or ACS, but who has "normal" coronary arteries on cardiac catheterisation. How Is Female-pattern CAD Treated? Because the narrowing of the coronary arteries in female-pattern CAD is diffuse, therapies aimed at relieving localised obstructions -- such as angioplasty, stents, and bypass surgery -- generally do not apply. Instead, therapy must be medical. Optimal treatment for this condition has yet to be defined, but a multi-pronged approach seems the best at this time, and should include aggressive risk factor modification, therapy to reduce the risk of clotting (aspirin), and drugs to protect the heart muscle itself (beta blockers and possibly ACE inhibitors). Researchers have now focused their attention on female-pattern CAD, and a better understanding of this condition and its treatment is very likely in the foreseeable future. In the meantime, if you are a woman who has had angina-like chest pain but your cardiac catheterisation study has shown "normal" coronary arteries, you and your doctor should be aware that your work is not yet finished. In this setting, a "normal" angiography study does not rule out a cardiac problem. Instead, t means that further investigation is needed to find the cause of your symptoms. https://www.verywellhealth.com kalip
  25. A rasher of bacon a day 'ups cancer risk Even small amounts of red and processed meat - such as a rasher of bacon a day - can increase the risk of bowel cancer, according to research. The latest study led by Oxford University and funded by Cancer Research UK, adds to evidence, including from the World Health Organisation, t hat eating red meat can be harmful. But exactly how big is the risk? And how much is too much? Here's what you need to know. What the study found: Researchers analysed data from almost half a million people involved in the UK Biobank study. Over the six years of their study they found 2,609 people developed bowel cancer. They estimate: Eating three rashers of bacon a day rather than just one could increase the risk of bowel cancer by 20% For every 10,000 people in the study who ate 21g a day of red and processed meat, 40 were diagnosed with bowel cancer The comparable figure for those who ate 76g a day, was 48 According to the NHS, 76g of cooked red meat is equivalent to about half an 8oz sirloin steak. A slice of ham or rasher of bacon is about 23g of processed meat. How much is too much? It's not clear. Cancer Research UK (CRUK) says 5,400 of the 41,804 cases of bowel cancer seen each year in the UK could be prevented if people did not eat processed meat at all. According to Emma Shields, information manager at CRUK, "This study shows the more meat you eat, the higher your risk of getting cancer and obviously the reverse is true - the less you eat the less likely you are to get bowel cancer," But she acknowledges smoking poses a much bigger risk, causing 54,300 cases of cancer each year. Public Health England says from its surveys many people eat too much red and processed meat. And experts advise people who eat lots of it to find ways to cut down. The Department of Health advises anyone eating more than 90g a day of red and processed meat should cut down to 70g. Is eating some OK? NHS guidance says there are some benefits of red meat - iron and protein content, for example - that must be balanced against potential risks. People can still eat meat and be healthy. What makes it risky? Processed meat - including bacon, some sausages, hot dogs, salami - is modified to either extend its shelf-life or change the taste - the main methods are smoking, curing, or adding salt or preservatives. It is thought the chemicals involved in the processing could be increasing the risk of cancer. High temperature cooking, such as on a barbecue, can also create carcinogenic chemicals. When it comes to red meat like beef, lamb and pork, there are suggestions that one of the proteins (that gives it its red colour) can damage the gut when it is broken down. But experts are still trying to fully understand the link. What do experts say? Prof Gunter Kuhnle, at the University of Reading, described the study as a very thorough analysis of the link between meat intake and bowel (also known as colorectal) cancer. He said: "The results confirm previous findings that both, red and processed meat consumption, increase the risk of colorectal cancer. "The increase in risk of approximately 20% per 50g increase of red and processed meat intake is in line with what has been reported previously, and confirms these findings. "The study also shows that dietary fibre reduces the risk of colorectal cancer. An increased consumption of fibre, as shown by this study, would be of considerably more benefit." Carrie Ruxton, of the Meat Advisory Panel, an industry-funded body, said: "Red meat provides valuable nutrients, such as protein, iron, zinc, vitamin D and B vitamins." She said it was known that "a range of lifestyle factors have a significant impact on the risk of bowel cancer, most notably age, genetics, lack of dietary fibre, inactivity and high alcohol consumption". The study is published in the International Journal of Epidemiology. https://www.bbc.com/news/health kalip
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